Dunning–Kruger effect

The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which unskilled individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly rating their ability much higher than average. This bias is attributed to a metacognitive inability of the unskilled to recognize their mistakes.

Actual competence may weaken self-confidence, as competent individuals may falsely assume that others have an equivalent understanding. As Kruger and Dunning conclude, “the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others”.

"Those who know do not speak. Those who speak do not know."

— Lao Zi

"That gum you like is going to come back in style."

"That gum you like is going to come back in style."

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"Socialism never took root in America because the poor see themselves not as an exploited proletariat but as temporarily embarrassed millionaires."

John Steinbeck

"A [hipster] is a legless man who teaches running."

— Channing Pollock

"Your mistake was a hidden intention"

— Oblique Strategies